SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE
Names: Muhammad NurShaquille Bin Shazahri, Ui Wun Juan, Muhammad Ibrahim Bin Azmansah
Group Reference: D
- Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:
[ ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacteria effect of chrysanthemum
[ √ ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography
[ ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals
[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene
[ ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore
[ ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research
e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households
- Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:
Title: An investigation on how wind speed affects the cooling rate of an object.
A. Question or Problem being addressed
How does wind speed affect the rate of cooling?
B. Goals / Expected Outcomes / Hypotheses
If the wind speed is higher, the object will cool faster.
C. Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)
- Infrared thermometer
- Large Electric fan, variable speed
- 3 identical Coffee mugs
- Stove/Bunsen Burner/Microwave oven
- Measuring Tape
- Liquid measuring cup
- Masking tape
- Washable marker
- Stool, or other object about 1 meter (m) high to hold the coffee cup
To be drawn in the written Group Research Proposal
• Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection
Setting up test area
1. Place the fan in a room with at least 3 meters (m) of open space in front of the fan.
2. Point the fan in the horizontal direction of the area used for the experiments. The center of the fan should be at the height of the stool. If unable to adjust the height to 1 m, use the available height and modify the procedure accordingly.
3. Make a 3-m line on the floor with masking tape, starting at and leading away from the fan.
4. Mark the masking tape every 0.5 m, using the washable marker. For the procedure below, only the 1m mark will be used. Use the other markings if more data is to be collected.
Measuring the Wind Speed
1. Turn the fan on at its lowest setting.
2. Place the stool at the 1-m distance from the fan and measure the wind speed with the anemometer. (Use meters per second (m/s) as the units for wind speed)
3. Measure the wind speed at the height of the top of the stool.
4. Repeat step 1 of this section for the fan's middle and top speeds.
5. Make a data table that contains the fan settings and corresponding wind speeds at 1 m from the fan.
6. Graph the data, with the fan setting on the x-axis and the wind speed on the y-axis.
Measuring how the winds affects the cooling rate of a cup of coffee
1. Label the two cups "1" and "2" using the masking tape and marker.
2 .The stool should be 1 m away from the fan.
3. Fill two identical coffee cups with equal volumes of water (200 mL, for example) and
microwave them until they are boiling.
4. Take the cups out of the microwave and place them on saucers.
5. Place another saucer on top of each of the cups to prevent evaporation.
6. Start the timer.
7. Measure the temperature of the coffee cups, as follows:
a. Use the infrared thermometer to read the temperature of the side of the cup.
b. Read the temperature on the side of the cup opposite from the handle.
c. Try to be consistent in the angle and distance used to take readings with the thermometer.
d. Record the time that you took the temperatures in your lab notebook.
e. The starting temperatures of the cups should be the same.
8. Place coffee cup #2 on a saucer on a surface that is away from any drafts.
9. Place coffee cup #1 on a saucer on the stool.
10. The handle of the cup should face away from the fan.
11. Turn the fan to its lowest setting.
12. Record the temperature of each coffee cup at 1-minute intervals for 10 minutes. Read the temperature on the side opposite the handle.
13. Repeat steps 3–13 of this section two more times. This enables you to show that your results are repeatable.
14. Repeat steps 3–13 of this section with the fan set to medium and high speed.
15. Graph the data.
• Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.
- Getting burned/scalded by boiling water, stove, naked flames
- Breakage of fragile apparatus eg. Beaker, Coffee Cups
- Spillage of liquids onto electrical appliances
- Electrocution by loose wires, etc.
- Tripping by loose wires, may result in injuries
- The group must not tamper with electrical mains and other fittings in laboratories
- The group must keep electrical wirings away from naked flames and heaters
- The group must inform the teacher-in-charge in case of any electrical accidents
- The group must be alert at all times, and be careful when using fragile materials.
- The group must inform the teacher-in-charge in case of any major/minor injuries
• Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses
1. Make three graphs, one for each wind speed.
a. Calculate the average temperatures for each time point.
b. Label the graphs with the fan setting (low, medium, and high) and the wind speed (in meters per second).
c.Put the time on the x-axis and the average temperature of cups 1 and 2 on the y-axis. How does wind speed affect the rate of cooling?
D. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order.
Annenberg Learner. (n.d). Windchill. Retrieved July 19, 2013 from http://learner.org/interactives/weather/act_windchill/
Chan Sai-tick. (March 2011). Hong Kong Observatory. The Wind Chill Effect. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://www.hko.gov.hk/education/edu01met/wxphe/ele_windchill_e.htm
Ethan Trex. (December 27, 2010). Mental Floss. In How Is Wind Chill Calculated?. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://mentalfloss.com/article/26730/how-wind-chill-calculated
James P. Dildine, Brrrr....Wind Chill is Chilly (1999). Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://mste.illinois.edu/dildine/wind_chill/#contact
National Center for Atmospheric Research. (n.d.). Weather and Climate basics. Retrieved July 21, 2013, from http://www.eo.ucar.edu/basics/wx_2_c.html
National Geographic. (n.d.). Wind Power. Retrieved July 21, 2013, from http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/wind-power-profile/
Need.org (2012). National Energy Education. In Wind Energy. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://www.need.org/needpdf/infobook_activities/IntInfo/WindI.pdf
Rob Quaden, et al. (May 2004 -2006). It's Cool. In The Shape of Change: Stocks and Flows. Retrieved July 19, 2013, from http://www.clexchange.org/ftp/documents/x-curricular/CC2010-11Shape4ItsCoolSF.pdf.
Science Buddies Organization. (n.d.). Weathering the Windchill: How Does Wind Speed Affect How Quickly an Object Cools? Retrieved July 19, 2013 from http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/FoodSci_p013.shtml#summary.
Weather WizKids. (n.d). Wind. Retrieved July 19, 2013 from http://www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-wind.html